Inclination inside Contour 2a reveals a good linear matchmaking ranging from ?

Inclination inside Contour 2a reveals a good linear matchmaking ranging from ?

Because of technical advances into the temperature controllers and you will processing control processes, it has become you can easily to help you include drying out sky temperature handle strategies (nonisothermal drying out), where you could realize sinusoidal revolution users (Profile 1a), square-wave or box means users (Figure 1b), broadening and you may p pages, saw-enamel trend users, and you can trapezoidal wave pages (Contour 1c), yet others. Nonisothermal drying makes they you are able to to locate factors out-of high quality and even shorter drying out times as opposed to those gotten with ongoing convective drying out ( Chua and others 2002 ). Even though some quality functions were read into the information published to nonisothermal drying out, structural attributes haven’t been stated, neither enjoys equations already been proposed to describe their decisions ( Chua while others 2000 ; Chua and others 2002 ). Yet, zero equations was in fact suggested to connect alterations in brand new architectural functions out of product confronted with changeable external requirements.

This has been seen that there is no significant difference ranging from the fresh new choices out-of genuine density depending on the X regarding the materials while in the convective drying out and just after getting rehydrated to various wetness content; yet not, variations were observed between obvious thickness according to X of thing during the lyophilization and you will next rehydration to several water content ( Krokida and you will ).

Three possible tendencies of ?p as a function of X have been found (Figure 2), both linear and nonlinear (concave-down and concave-up). p and X, which considers reduction in volume to be equal to the volume of the water eliminated from the material ( Madamba and others 1994 ). In tendency of Figure 2b, it can be observed how ?p increases slowly up to a critical point, followed by an exponential decay. This change has been explained by water loss in the material during drying ( Lozano and others 1983 ; Zogzas and others 1994 ). In tendency in Figure 2c, it is assumed that the increase in ?p to a critical point is due to the fact that the reduction in volume is greater than the reduction in mass; after this critical point, the pores in the material are considered to be closed, and measured volume is greater than true volume ( Lozano and others 1983 ). In the above-described tendencies, it is merely assumed that volume and solid dry mass are constant. However, when materials are heated, they may expand or contract; in such cases, volume is not constant.

Thickness Patterns

Several efforts have been made to predict different tendencies of ? as a function of X. Generally in these models, the foodstuff is considered to be a binary compound (water–solid). Table 3 shows models for true and apparent density proposed for foodstuffs. The models for predicting ?b and ?p are based on the development of pores during the lyophilization process, as the formation of pores is considered to be a function of ideal conditions, since there is no reduction in the volume of the solid as a result of water sublimation ( Karathanos and others 1996 ).

Real density (?p) models

Certain people features suggested correlations acquired because of nonlinear regression having forecasting genuine thickness and apparent density as a purpose of dampness content. not, the outcome not feel prevalent and are merely legitimate into point, geometry, and drying criteria utilized in those people works (Dining table step three).

They seen linear choices out-of density for different suspensions from absolute substances, particularly proteins, oils, carbs, materials, and you may ash. This type of authors opposed the habits having experimental occurrence opinions getting dairy, tangerine liquid, and you will bratwurst sausage, getting an optimum mistake of 1.45%, and you can looking for an excellent quadratic effectiveness to have drinking water.

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