(20) The definition of to own ‘brother’, aha in BT, have at exactly the same time started enhanced, even though this mode is also included in Turoyo. Hertevin has one another ?aha and ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
At the same time, external NENA, you will find most other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One to as an alternative mystical items that is attested in every NENA languages except Sanandaj Religious (and this most likely just a go gap regarding the research) is actually aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) contends that the keyword derives throughout the resources ql ‘to feel crooked’. All of the languages make use of the function aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you will Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Some other keyword discussed from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the latest Syriac atta in most NENA, not during the Turoyo or Mandaic. It keyword generally seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s interesting to see one to an irregular plural survives within the multiple languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.
(23) Surprise development pointed out from the Noldeke (1868, 59) is rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The change away from h to help you x in this one-word try included in all NENA dialects where in fact the verb try attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Some other unforeseen invention ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, that takes the latest variations zda?good, zdaya, and you will zdala on individuals dialects. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) offer a potential derivation in the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms on infixed d are observed in every the fresh NENA languages where the options was attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Not absolutely all of the identifying top features of NENA are observed either in Turoyo or Mandaic
In my opinion your a lot more than causes it to be clear the NENA languages express many special attributes which happen to be discover neither in the previous attested forms of Aramaic nor about almost every https://datingranking.net/cs/tastebuds-recenze/ other way of living languages. These features assortment across the domain names from phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.
Particularly, every languages away from NENA concur in the standards dos, 9, fourteen, fifteen, 16, 21, and you will 22. Most of the dialects where i’ve recommendations plus agree on conditions 20, 23, and twenty-four.
Just about Halabja concur when you look at the conditions 8 and you may eleven. Standard six is located in most of the languages except Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.
Even with the interior divisions, new NENA dialects form an amazingly defined category, divided obviously off each other Turoyo and Mandaic. The positioning ones dialects outside the NENA soft may be out of matter.
The levels that possess is actually shared around the NENA is specially unbelievable whenever we check out the astounding differences when considering different languages. The dictate out of almost every other languages on the NENA could have been both strong and you will wider, together with degree of common intelligibility anywhere between dialects could be extremely brief. The many shared designs dispute strongly to possess a familiar origin regarding brand new NENA dialects, in both one dialect or even in a small grouping of directly relevant dialects. At the same time, we can detect several important packages from isoglosses and that represent the borders of dialect organizations.
a) The fresh new dialect off Halabja cannot show specific extremely important innovations and therefore are observed through all remaining portion of the languages. It doesn’t mode a beneficial CCiC-le preterite off intransitive verbs (8), it’s got zero b(it)- coming marker (10), and has now zero third individual only one copula that have step one (11). This is the absolute most standard section ranging from dialects of NENA. It means that kept languages mode a group through which designs give when you find yourself Halabja remained unchanged because of the him or her.